Papers & Conferences

Cloud-based XR Services: A Survey on Relevant Challenges and Enabling Technologies
February 2022
Theodoros Theodoropoulos, Antonios Makris, Abderrahmane Boudi, Tarik Taleb, Uwe Herzog, Luis Rosa, Luis Cordeiro, Konstantinos Tserpes, Elena Spatafora, Alessandro Romussi, Enrico Zschau, Manos Kamarianakis, Antonis Protopsaltis, George Papagiannakis, and Patrizio Dazzi
Journal of Networking and Networking Applications
In recent years, the emergence of XR (eXtended Reality) applications, including Holography, Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality, has resulted in the creation of rather demanding requirements for Quality of Experience (QoE) and Quality of Service (QoS). In order to cope with requirements such as ultra-low latency and increased bandwidth, it is of paramount importance to leverage certain technological paradigms. The purpose of this paper is to identify these QoE and QoS requirements and then to provide an extensive survey on technologies that are able to facilitate the rather demanding requirements of Cloud-based XR Services. To that end, a wide range of enabling technologies are explored. These technologies include e.g. the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC), Edge Storage, the ETSI Management and Orchestration (MANO), the ETSI Zero touch network & Service Management (ZSM), Deterministic Networking, the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Media Streaming, MPEG’s (Moving Picture Experts Group) Mixed and Augmented Reality standard, the Omnidirectional MediA Format (OMAF), ETSI’s Augmented Reality Framework etc.
Deterministic Latency/Jitter-aware Service Function Chaining over Beyond 5G Edge Fabric
February 2022
Hao Yu, Tarik Taleb, and Jiawei Zhang
IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Deterministic Networking (DetNet) has recently attracted much attention. It aims at studying the deterministic bounded latency and low latency variation for time-sensitive applications (e.g., industrial automation). To improve the quality of service (QoS) guarantee and make the network management efficient, it is desirable for Internet Service Provider (ISP) to obtain an optimal service function chain (SFC) provision strategy while providing deterministic service performance for the time-sensitive applications. In this paper, we will study the deterministic SFC lifetime management problem in beyond 5G edge fabric with the objective of maximizing the overall profits and ensuring the deterministic latency and jitter of SFC requests. We first formulate this problem as a mathematical model with the maximal profits for ISP. Then, the novel Deterministic SFC Deployment algorithm (Det-SFCD) and SFC Adjustment algorithm (Det-SFCA) due to traffic load variation are proposed to efficiently solve the SFC lifetime management problem. Extensive simulation results show that our proposed algorithms can achieve better performance in terms of SFC request acceptance rates, overall profits and latency variation compared with the benchmark algorithm.
Cloud for Holography and Augmented Reality
October 2021
Antonios Makris, Abderrahmane Boudi, Massimo Coppola, Luís Cordeiro, Massimiliano Corsini, Patrizio Dazzi, Ferran Diego Andilla, Yago Gonzalez Rozas, Manos Kamarianakis, Maria Pateraki, Thu Le Pham, Antonis Protopsaltis, Aravindh Raman, Alessandro Romussi, Luís Rosa, Elena Spatafora, Tarik Taleb, Theodoros Theodoropoulos, Konstantinos Tserpes, Enrico Zschau, Uwe Herzog
IEEE International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet)
The paper introduces the CHARITY framework, a novel framework which aspires to leverage the benefits of intelligent, network continuum autonomous orchestration of cloud, edge, and network resources, to create a symbiotic relationship between low and high latency infrastructures. These infrastructures will facilitate the needs of emerging applications such as holographic events, virtual reality training, and mixed reality entertainment. The framework relies on different enablers and technologies related to cloud and edge for offering a suitable environment in order to deliver the promise of ubiquitous computing to the NextGen application clients. The paper discusses the main pillars that support the CHARITY vision, and provide a description of the planned use cases that are planned to demonstrate CHARITY capabilities.
An Encoder-Decoder Deep Learning Approach for Multistep Service Traffic Prediction
August 2021
Theodoros Theodoropoulos, Angelos-Christos Maroudis, John Violos and Konstantinos Tserpes
IEEE International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Machine Learning Applications
The prediction of traffic in regards to data servicescan be leveraged by cloud and edge computing orchestrationmechanisms in order to minimize the costly number of resourcesbeing utilized and guarantee that the specified Quality of Services(QoS) metrics are within acceptable ranges. The service trafficprediction has a long history dating back to the 1990s thatstarted with point process, time series statistical models followedby Recurrent Neural Networks. Contemporary cloud resourcemanagement mechanisms can provide resource allocation policiesby leveraging multi-step traffic prediction.In this research paper, we compare statistical time series withDeep Learning (DL) models. We propose an encoder-decoderDL approach for multi-step traffic prediction. We examined four encoder-decoder DL architectures i) Stacked LSTMs, ii) CNN-LSTMs, iii) Bidirectional LSTM and iv) an innovative Hybrid Unidirectional-Bidirectional LSTM. We conducted experimentsusing a TCP trace data set with a 5 minutes time-step. We predictthe number of requests, the transmitted data and the duration ofthe sessions with multi-steps in a range of one to five steps, whichcorresponds to a time window that spans 25 minutes in total.The results show that the encoder-decoder architecture providesbetter accuracy results in regards to predicting the traffic andthe duration of the sessions.
Immersive Services over 5G and Beyond Mobile Systems
August 2021
Nadir Zinelaabidine, Tarik Taleb, Hannu Flinck, Ouns Bouachir, and Miloud Bagaa
IEEE Network Magazine
5G and beyond mobile systems target a plethora of emerging industrial and entertainment verticals that incur extra overhead to the network. These verticals are characterized by vigorous, continuous, and conflicting requirements that make the desired system’s mission strenuous and more challenging. These verticals, such as autonomous driving, will accommodate immersive services, including virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) and Holography services. Immersive services, in particular, have strict requirements for latency, throughput, and positioning. This paper discusses VR-based remote services’ potential, which occupies an important place among immersive services such as remote surgery, remote space control, and remote driving of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or cars. Such services require an ultra-low Glass-to-Glass latency to avoid any failure and accidents when remotely controlling devices. We evaluate an immersive remote control service from the end-to-end communication perspectives using different camera devices that stream real-time 360 videos to a VR Head Mounted Device (HMD). The obtained results demonstrate the challenges of such service and the need for more advanced and optimized techniques, devices, and protocols to achieve less than 20 ms of Glass-to-Glass latency.
CHARITY’s Holographic Assistant Use Case
December 2021
Uwe Herzog
Horizon Cloud Summit 2021
Uwe Herzog as coordinator of the CHARITY Project presented at “‘Success Stories and Use Cases from the European Cloud Community” session of H-Cloud Summit 2021, the CHARITY’s holographic assistant use case.
The future of XR Services in the wake of 6G
November 2021
Luis Cordeiro
International Symposium on 6G Networking
Luis Cordeiro from OneSource presented at the International Symposium on 6G Networking in Lisbon the future of XR Services, their upcoming network and computing challenges and the role of 6G in addressing them.
Edge & XR: A New Wave
March 2021
Yago Gonzalez Rozas
XR Start-Up Connect: European Kick-Off
Yago Gonzalez explained the intrinsic relationship between one of the hottest terms in the computer science market right now, edge computing, and the XR environment, particularly regarding both holography and VR architectures, supported by the developments made in the CHARITY and Accordion H2020 consortiums.